Neutron matter as origin of the universe

Yuri Mikhailovich Fomin

Until now, the neutron matter is thought to be of "secondary" origin [3,4]. It is generally thought that neutron matter is created under immense pressure (2 x 1017 kg/m3), when electrons are "impressed" into protons transforming the latter into neutrons [11]. However, the theory of nuclear matter provides no convincing explanation how protons and electrons have been created; therefore the above-mentioned "mechanism" of creation of neutron matter is only a suggestion.

At the same time it has been known for a long time that in the vacuum free neutrons decay into a proton, an electron, and an electron antineutrino every 16 hoursThis fact undoubtedly proves that neutron matter is the original or "primary" state of matter.

The neutron matter is not only a source of protons; it is also a mechanism confining them within a certain volume near the neutrons. To all appearances, the tight packing of positively charged particles (protons) in the nucleus is possible only thanks to the presence of neutrons in the nucleus. It is well known that the main forces acting between the neutron matter and protons inside nuclei are not electromagnetic in nature. They are called "strong forces"; these forces are significantly greater than the Coulomb repulsion [4]. Although at present the nature of strong forces is not clearly understood the presence of neutrons in the nuclei of all chemical elements can be regarded as a proof that the neutron matter is the source of "nuclear forces". To all appearances, the first structured building block of matter called "nucleus" appeared thanks to this "mysterious" property of the neutron matter.

According to the existing experimental data and theoretical predictions of nuclear physicists, the synthesis of "heavy" atomic nuclei occurs via transformation of "light" nuclei, i.e. a long chain of complex transformations caused by "nuclear fusion reactions" [6]. However, the fact of the presence of neutrons in nuclei is not explained. The suggestion that the neutron matter is the "primary matter" leads to another theory explaining the origin of atomic nuclei with different electric charges. Proper calculations provide evidence that the ratio of the content of neutron matter to the content of proton matter in nuclei of chemical elements, if averaged within different periods of the Mendeleev's periodic table, continues to increase with the increase of the number of period from 1 to 7 [16] (see Table 1).

Data presented in Table 1 can be regarded as an indication that nuclei with larger number of protons were created from larger quantities of neutron matter.

The fact that in the vacuum "free" neutrons spontaneously decay into protons, electrons and electron antineutrino, provides evidence that there are no neutrons in the interstellar space [4].  At the same time in the middle of the XXth century V.A. Ambartsumyan, Member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, studied stellar systems of a "new type" and concluded that "normal stellar and diffuse state of matter" is preceded by a superdense state in the form of bodies made up of protomatter, i.e. neutrons, protons, electrons and hyperons" [2]. British astronomer Jocelyn Bell Burnell working under the direction of Anthony Hewish confirmed this brilliant prediction having discovered in 1967 the so-called "pulsars", which are currently thought to be rapidly spinning neutron stars [11],. Thus, it has been found out that neutron matter exists in the universe, but in the form of "superdense bodies' rather than free particles. Such bodies can be called "protobodies". One should keep in mind that in reality the density of protobodies is not known, as there exists no convincing proof of their origin. Today theoretical calculations of the their density (~ 1.2 x 1014 g/cm3) are based on the suggestion that such bodies are final products of the evolution of stars and their transformation into neutron stars is caused by gravitational collapse, when the nuclear fuel runs out resulting in an immense pressure. However, besides these hypotheses there exists another point of view. In 1958 V.A. Ambartsumyan, Member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, suggested that in the central parts of galaxies there do exist "supermassive clots of pre-stellar matter that eject large quantities of matter" [1,2]. The modern space equipment allowed to refine the conclusion made by V.A. Ambartsumyan. It was found out that large amounts of hydrogen are regularly ejected from the central part of our galaxy [7]. We know that nuclei of hydrogen atoms are produced through decay of the neutron matter. Therefore we can think that the source of ejected hydrogen is the remnant of the formerly gigantic neutron body situated in the center of our galaxy; this body seems to be the former source of protobodies of different size that served as building blocks for development of stars arranged in a structure called "galaxy".

The above-mentioned arguments allow suggesting that neutron protobodies are the initial rather than the final stage of the evolution of stars. This conclusion is confirmed by the data obtained in the studies of protobodies. Thus, researchers detected "ordinary nuclei and electrons" on their surface [3]. This can be a result of an active "release" of the neutron matter from the "captivity to the superdense state" with its further decay into protons and electrons and therefore it can be an explanation of the smaller density in the peripheral zone of protobodies. Undoubtedly, such a release must be accompanied by emission of a large amount of thermal energy. Thus, we explain the genesis of "microstars" ("micro" - on a scale of the universe). It might happen that it took several billions of years for such small protobodies (the diameters of the discovered protobodies do not exceed  10-30 km [11]) to evolve into "microstars" whose cooling resulted in appearance of "small" planets of the Solar system including our Earth.

We suggest that  one of the small protobodies underwent transformations in the following sequence and as a result became our Earth.

1. Emission of a large amount of thermal energy accompanying the "release" of the neutron matter from the "captivity to the superdense state" leading to creation of "fire ovoid", i.e. a "microstar".

2. The protobody still remaining in the center of the "microstar" continued to eject new portions of neutron matter, which released protons and the release of protons in its turn was followed by formation of new nuclei of future chemical elements. To all appearances, the formed nuclei were squeezed out from the protobody to the peripheral zones of the star.

3. When stars come into contact with the absolute cold of the surrounding space, the temperature of their outer surface continues to decrease down to several thousand degrees [13], i.e. to such temperature that is observed on the surface of the Sun, allowing electrons to join the nucleus to form atoms so that the number of the atomic electrons corresponds to the electric charge of the nucleus. The transformation of the star into a planet begins at this stage [13].

It is noteworthy to mention that the outer crust of the Earth (geosphere A) is made up of both, chemical elements with "light" nuclei and all of the chemical elements with "heavy" nuclei (Fig.1). Probably such nuclei were formed only from the largest fragments of the nuclear matter, which were present only in the outer zone of the protobody.  As time passed, smaller neutron fragments began to separate from the deeply located parts of the protobody. The chemical composition of the geospheres of the Earth provides evidence that this is the case. Thus, according to the data obtained in the course of the study of the xenoliths in kimberlite pipes, the matter under the Earth's crust consists only of elements contained in the first four periods of the Mendeleev's periodic table, up to Fe [5, 9]. Besides it, it is known that the next-to-last (if numbered in the direction towards the Earth's center) geosphere is made up of hydrogen and helium [10, 12] (Fig.1). Based on this data one can suggest that it is highly probable that the closer is a geosphere to the Earth's center, the smaller is the number of protons in the nuclei of chemical elements occurring in this geosphere. Therefore the nuclei were surrounded by a smaller number of electron orbitals and this resulted in a denser geosphere (according to the principle of the maximum packing density). This phenomenon was observed in the course of deep seismic studies [10,12]. Thus the structure of the Earth reflects the natural decrease of the charge of nuclei due to the decrease of the size of the fragments of neutron matter ejected from the internal parts of the protobody.

Apparently this process ended in the appearance of the so-called "internal core" of the Earth (geosphere G) (Fig. 1). Its composition can be determined based on the suggestion that neutron matter is "primary matter". As neutron matter accounts for 50% of the Earth's mass [4], one may suggest that the mass of the neutron matter, which originally gave shape to the protobody, has been reduced and consequently, the cross section of the protobody has been also significantly reduced. That is why it is virtually impossible to detect the protobody, if using modern geophysical methods. At the same time there exists some indirect evidence that in the Earth's central part such processes continue and are accompanied by emission of thermal energy, although in significantly smaller quantities than at the "stellar stage" of our planet. First of all, as such indirect evidence one may regard the intensive convective flows outside the internal core, i.e. within  geosphere F [12] (Fig. 1). Secondly, another indirect evidence is the formation of the so-called mantle plumes, i.e. intensive heat flows with temperature about 4000; C in the above-mentioned geosphere [8, 14, 15] (Fig. 1). Based on this data one can suggest that geosphere G contains the remnant of the protobody, which continues to eject tiny fragments of neutron matter, whose decay can result in the appearance of a single proton and an electron. Perhaps hydrogen atoms created in such a manner make up geosphere F (fig. 1).

1. The neutron matter is the primary matter and, consequently, it is the material substrate of the universe.
It is situated in the central part of galaxies in the form of "ultrasqueezed, extremely massive clots" being the source of protobodies, the latter giving birth to so-called "stars";

2. The most significant transformation of neutron matter is the ejection from it of protons and electrons, which can be regarded as building blocks of the entire material world.

3. The first structured building block of matter called "nucleus" appeared thanks to nuclear forces, the neutron matter being the source of such nuclear forces.

4. The number of protons in a nucleus directly depends on the quantity of neutron matter in it.

5. The size of protobodies in the center of our galaxy and stars continues to decrease. The appearance of significant quantities of hydrogen can be regarded as a sign marking the end of their existence.

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