On the Genesis of Galaxies and the Matter

Galaxies are known to be the main structural objects of the Universe. However, the issue of their genesis remains unsolved. The reason, in our opinion, is the fact that the original cosmogonic assumption. Even now some attempts are made to resolve this issue using the Kant-Laplace hypothesis, the gist of which is the presumption that ‘stars and planets are created from gas and dust nebulae’. Naturally, with this approach, galaxy studies are fully focused on finding mostly morphological features of star clusters, while galaxy definitions in fact declare that their formation is accidental. The phenomenon of generation of these clusters is explained by some mysterious ‘cycle of the matter’: interstellar gas -> stars -> interstellar gas. An explanation of galaxy formation states, ‘…There are plenty of old stars in the space between the galaxies. Therefore, galaxies are nothing but clusters of such stars that merge and disintegrate spontaneously. Note that theses clusters are so large that, affected by self-gravitation, stars are blast generated into gas and dust in their central areas’ [3]. This presumption leads to the following conclusion, ‘The Universe consists of ordinary stars, gas and dust rather than of some substance unknown to scholars’ [3].

This conclusion runs contrary to the recently obtained calculations of substance density in the Universe, according to which, ‘the average galaxy density is million times higher than the average density of substance throughout the Universe’ [6]. It follows therefore that outside the galaxies, there exists just the absolute vacuum, while the whole volume of the matter of the Universe is concentrated in the galaxies only. That’s why the issue of galaxy genesis is at the same time the issue of genesis of the material world.

In our opinion, in order to resolve this issue, we need to understand the nature of the source of star formation as well as that of the energy that enables such enormous galactic structures to be formed. As early as in the middle of the 20th century, Academician V.A.Ambartsumyan brought forward the idea that ‘in the middle of galaxy, there are some supermassive clots of prestellar substance, which is ejected from these clots’ [1, 2]. An indirect indication to the nature of these ‘clots’ is high hydrogen content in the interstellar gas [6]. Hydrogen nucleuses are known to emerge during breakdown of free-state neutronic particles [4, 5]. The source of such particles should be doubtless some neutronic body, while the high hydrogen content in the interstellar gas means that there must be a very big neutronic body in the central area of the galaxies. This assumption is confirmed by the data obtained during studies of central galactic areas. For instance, B.V.Komberg [6] believes that galactic nucleuses could occupy areas equal to hundreds of parsecs in the center of galaxies (fig. 1-а). Considering the parameters of such nucleuses, we suggest calling them ‘galactic neutronic super-nucleuses’. Certain data are available that enable us to believe that appearance of neutronic substance in the form of particles and fragments of various sizes as well as generation of enormous energy is precondition by some processes taking place in these super-nucleuses. Two types of energy have been found [6]. One of them is ‘heat radiation’ that is generated when neutronic particles are released from ultra-compressed condition. Their sources, apart from the core body of the super-nucleus, may also become multiple fragments of neutronic substance, which in such cases turn into fire ovoids, i.e., the so-called ‘young’ stars [3]. There are indications as to possible emergence of such stars obtained during observations over some recently discovered neutronic stars. There are ‘ordinary nucleuses and electrons’ [7] on their surface, i.e., breakdown products of neutronic particles released from ultra-compressed condition. Probably, it is these ‘young’ stars that form ‘a rather dense cluster’ around the super-nucleus, i.e., in the ‘near space’ [3] (fig. 1-b).
Apart from the heat radiation, the super-nucleus periodically, approximately every 50 mln. years [3, 6], generates ‘super-powerful non-thermal radiation evoking violent movements of gas, eruption of jets, enormous flows of interstellar hydrogen’ [6]. The power of energy released during these processes is believed to be the highest value out of those physics has to deal with [6]. Understanding the nature of this type of energy generation ‘is of huge interest for both physics and nature studies in general’ [6]. At the time when this type of radiation occurs, powerful ‘jet’ flows (‘branches’) of gas and dust substance are formed, which, in all probability, capture some of young neutronic stars from the near space and eject them into the farther ‘medium’ space (fig. 1-c). Within our Galaxy they probably add up to the number of stars comprising the ring-type cluster known as the Milky Way, where they continue their development. Only a few of these young stars are ejected even farther, into the deeper space (fig. 1-d), the outer boundary of which is quire conventional [3].

It follows from the aforesaid that enormous clusters of celestial bodies called ‘galaxies’ are not accidental. The starts and interstellar gas comprising them are products of processes that take place deep inside the neutronic super-nucleuses located in the middle of these clusters.

Therefore, super-nucleuses are the main object of galactic structures. It is there that all further galactic transformations originate from. They are ultra-compressed clots of neutronic substance, which probably is the original substance [8, 9]. Detecting the nature of the original substance and formation of such clots would mean a great contribution into resolving the key issue of nature studies – what is the Universe?

In order to resolve this issue, it is essential to discover the original, so-called ‘relic radiation’ that fills evenly the Universe. According to A.G. Doroshkevich et al.[6], this discovery enables one to presume that in the past, ‘the Universe went through the stage of hot dense plasma that featured full thermodynamic balance’.

Transformation of the original neutronic substance begins in fire ovoids called the stars. In our opinion, in the center of each star there is a fragment of the original neutronic substance (the proto-body) that generates neutronic particles. When they are released from ultra-compressed condition, enormous energy is certainly produced, which turns the proto-body into a fire ovoid, i.e., into a star. According to theoretical calculations, the temperature inside the stars reaches millions of degrees. In these conditions, free neutronic particles every 16 hours break out into protons and electrons [5], which are known to comprise future atomic nucleuses. Appearance of such ultimately simple structures means the beginning of creation of an absolutely new natural formation, which we propose to define as ‘matter’.

Unlike the unstructured original substance, the matter features strict and stable links between its constituent elements. Besides, its further development is subject to physical, chemical and, finally, biological laws. As regards the stars, further development of the matter is only possible within their photosphere, where the temperature drops down to a few thousands of degrees. In these conditions, it is possible for the matter to join electron nucleuses, i.e., more complex structures of the matter called ‘atoms’ can emerge. For instance, 2/3 of chemical elements of the periodic table have been found in the photosphere of the Sun by means of spectral analysis.

Therefore, the stars are galactic objects, inside which the most vital natural process takes place, i.e., the original substance turns into the matter in its original (i.e., nuclear) form.

Parameters of fragments that break away from the galactic neutronic super-nucleus probably vary a lot, and the smallest of them (in space terms - about 1,000 km) generate micro-stars. Naturally, they cool down much faster than the micro-stars, and transformation of the matter runs faster, too. As the micro-stars cool down, they develop a hard shell, i.e., turn into space bodies of a new type different from stars, the so-called ‘planets’ [10]. On the planet surface, the matter develops into even more complex forms — molecules, their compounds, etc. Forms of the matter featuring unique complexity and scales appeared on Earth, the oldest planet in the Solar system [10]. It has been able to develop a new, ‘living’ type of the matter that can generate heat energy inside it, unlike non-living matter.


1. The prestellar original substance in the space has the form of ultra-compressed super-nucleuses consisting presumably of neutronic elements.
2. Neutronic super-nucleuses are sources of powerful radiation, during which the stars and gas and dust substance emerge.
3. Galaxies are enormous clusters of stars, gas and dust generated during transformation of neutronic super-nucleuses.
4. Formation of atomic nucleuses means the beginning of formation of the matter.
5. The matter is a substance featuring strict and stable links between its constituent elements.


1. V.A.Ambartsumyan. On evolution of galaxies //Izvestiya of AN Armyanskoy SSR, fiz-mat. nauki, 9, 1958, №№5, 9.
2. V.A.Ambartsumyan. Opuses. Vol. 2. Yerevan, AN Armyanskoy SSR Publishers, 1960.
3. A.A.Barenbaum. Galactocentric paradigm in geology and astronomy. 2nd revised edition. – M. Librokom Publishers, 2010.
4. G.Bethe, Atomic matter theory. Translated from English, Mir Publishers, Moscow, 1974.
5. N.A.Vlasov. Neutrons. 2nd edition. М.: Nauka Publishers, 1971.
6. Genesis and evolution of galaxies and stars. / A.G. Doroshkevich, Yu.N.Yefremov, A.V.Zasov, Ya.V.Zeldovich. Supervised by S.P.Piklener. М.: Nauka Publishers, 1976.
7. Soviet Encyclopedic Dictionary. — Sovietskaya Entsiklopediya Publishers, 1984.
8. Yu.M.Fomin. On the issue of pre-nuclear matter. www.proza.ru/2011/02/24/1795
9. Yu.M.Fomin. Neutronic substance as the basis of the Universe. www.proza.ru/2012/05/16/987
10. Yu.M.Fomin. On the genesis and age of the planets of the Earth group. www.proza.ru/2013/06/28/974