The Case of Lutoya Dreamer

 All rise for the court! A sharp call of a young judicial assistant woke up the courts audience, on May 20, 2196 by the Earth calendar. The call opened a court session devoted to the judicial claim of the company Exoplanet Space Travel (EST), a manufacturer of machines with artificial intelligence for the purpose of space exploration VS Space Robotics International (SRI). According to the code of laws, ratified in 2135 and entitled On the interaction of people and machines with artificial intelligence (AI), a claim could also be made directly against the hero for the day, a space research robonaut, series QX, Model 4, class of AI, which at the first hearing was still at upon the Lutoya exoplanet. In space jurisprudence accounts the story received quite a wide publicity and made it into the history as the Humanity against the QX-4 robot case. It was, perhaps, one of the most notable law enforcement cases of the code On the interaction of people with machines of class AI. Since the case was certainly of a non-local by character and consequences, it was finally decided to send it to a court of a universal jurisdiction, the Court of Earth, which was located under the dome of the Round Hall of floating in the ocean enormous ship-city The Promised Land. The famous hearing took place there, modestly lost in the group of accredited court reporters, being your faithful servant amongst them.
Lutoya was the third planet, orbiting alpha Aquarius. Located in theoretical life zone and it had been attracting attention as one of those deep-sky objects, hoped-for scientists and all sorts of space executives. No less serious expectations were from the QX-4 machines, endowed with a powerful AI, adapted to conduct exploratory missions on their own, choosing the best course of action in the most hazardous and unpredictable conditions; analyzing myriads of environmental factors, filing reports on the spot. The robonaut had been programmed to fulfill a mission of preliminary analytical reporting, conduct and carry out the very first and most important verdict to the planet. Whether the mission was positive in its primary outcome, it could be followed by a full-scale research campaign and a new route through the gravity gates- accelerators towards Lutoya could be set. In case of a negative conclusion, the planet would likely to be buried in oblivion. It just would have expanded the list of many thousands of exoplanets astronomers open, which active study had been postponed until better times. A network of gravity corridors, stretched along the locations of the powerful artificial gravity accelerators, was set. Those mega-factories of artificial gravitation impulses, worked in synergy with the natural gravitational catapults - largest planet of the solar system, providing acceleration for star travel bolides. The exploration was still an expensive matter, but the success of Gliese mission inspired hundreds of new enthusiasts, the space race turned into a real gold rush. Research robots were quite effective, scattered through the corridors, like bullets from a machine gun in the direction of desired exoplanets. Robots were designed to help capitalize on the space miracle.
So, what happened with the research android QX-4 on Lutoya? The most intelligent of all contemporary robonauts had been sent to the planet with no return one-way ticket mission. It took about five years to deliver the space rover and the robot to the planet. The jet kicked off from a robotic lunar launch pad through the twelfth accelerating gravity corridor, the Lutoya landing went smoothly.
The QX-4 spent couple of months on a reconnaissance study, which included chemical soil and atmosphere tests with the mini-lab the machine possessed within its corps. Part of research was visual inspection within the range of tens of square kilometers and here was the result, the machine sent back to Earth an enthusiastic message: This world is alive! Surprise, sensation, of course: climate-wise Lutoya shouldnt really be that much friendly than Mars: for alpha Aquarius a bit colder than the Sun and the orbit-pointing angle towards the star is such that climate had to be changed rather abruptly, when the duty ratio of almost one and a half days to the earth. Facts stubbornly showed that any form of life on this exoplanet is questionable, and in robots reports planet looked like a paradise. To overcome quite appropriate in this case doubts the reports were sent out to astronomers for verification, and the conclusion, unfortunately, returned fully disappointing. Robot was cheating. It simply could not be true on the third planet of alpha Aquarius. With the testimony of a giant cosmic super telescope system at the border, one cant really argue (they had to rent it, cost what it was, once a scandal had already broken out). And yes, it was a zone of life, but the atmospheretemperatureSo, the robot turned to be a buggy one ... And this was the machine, perfection of the world that would not fail even at the bottom of the methane ocean of Titan, as the Space Robotics prospectus mentioned it.
Thus, the first lawsuit was filed. Manufacturers of the super android, in turn, slapped back claims, accusing EST that they exploited robot improperly, and even that they fuel the problem intentionally, to draw public attention to Lutoya as space destination. Space Robotics insisted that all sensors, installed on the robot, signaled perfect functioning, meaning that the machine does not lie. And wider the scandal spread across the Intersun-net of colonies, louder both companies insisted on public hearing of the case. Thus the QX-4 found itself in a serious trouble. The prosecution, according to the laws of human interaction with machines of class AI (artificial intellect) of the Code, could also give a sentence to the android itself, for it de facto had consciousness of an adult person. The punishment could be as hard as destroying the machine and maximum punishment for the robot could be as hard as erasing all data associated from all databanks and supercomputer cloud storages of the Intersun-net.
Was it some kind of robots-phobia they had, or something else, but they were quite convinced that the cynical attempt to deceive humanity, should be punished and the machine should be responsible too, not only humans who created it. Among the participants of the first hearing were SRI, head of the Next Station Lutoya space travel project from the EST, an astronomer, and an astronaut, who visited few researched exoplanets, as well as media and, of course, the public jury. But first hearing ended in nothing, partly due to the fact that the accused one, if such a term could be applied to a machine, was absent. It was decided to convene a second hearing, and special space police unit was ordered to bring back the QX-4 from Lutoya. By this time the robots brain had already stopped sending messages, but wasnt disabled, however, sensors scanned its work, sending independent signals that the device was fully operational.
Five years passed before the hearing of the case Humanity VS robot QX-4 resumed. The space police jet with Android on board came back from the planet. All rise for the court! trial participants heard the sacred outcry again. By the time of the second hearing, the case might have already lost its success de scandale, but legal and scientific aspects of the judicial case were still hard to overstate.
According to the Code of laws on cooperation with smart robots, the machine could be destroyed, for the failure of the mission and an attempt to conduct big scale cheating of people and for resisting (as it turned out during the trial) to the space police on detention. And it would be the very first case, implicated thinking machine, which had a mind as humans understand what consciousness really is. So, scientists werent on the robots side. At the end, they said, it was meant to make conclusions on microorganisms, mosses, signs of life in geysers, a comprehensive analysis of the soil, presence, and composition of water on Lutoya, it was supposed to file scientific stuff, what a waste of time!
Finally, the QX-4 entered the Earth Court Hall. Compact, ergonomic android slightly rustling its protective thermos-control coating made of some super-composite of metallic colors, it calmly swam into the courtroom. Its head was different from earthly brethren Series QX smart service machines, widely used: it was slightly increased in the occipital part, where there was a powerful transmitting device, and a large, all over her face, light shielding screen has been shifted to the crown: a sign that the robot It is currently out of the hazardous exoplanet working environment.
- QX-Four, can you hear me - the judge asked the robot.
- Yes, Your Honor, - answered calmly the thinking machine.
- Are you informed that in the case of perjury you can be dismantled?
- Yes, Sir.
The judge took a quick look at the QX-4s eyes with these reddish-orange lenses with a black dot electronically pulsing in the very middle. Perhaps for this uneven ripple of black aperture, one could say the machine was reacting in a way of conscious thinking. Mind over the matter the judge threw off a fleeting feeling that a living creature was in front of him, switching, as it seemed, effectively, its mode of talking to a cold pragmatic heartless dialogue with the probably guilty machine.
- I appeal today to the parties involved in the case Humanity against the robot QX-Four - continued the judge. - I remind you, - he said, - that, according to the Law, if the robot was found to be defective, the company-manufacturer holds full responsibility for behavioral, structural, mechanical engineering and software-motivated acts of the defective robot. And if the machine is in working order, the company operating machine should be taxed for its failed actions, and in state of consciousness of artificial intelligence, the machine itself is subject to liability under the circumstances: key systems in OK mode and in a state of AI in mode of full-conscious,- the Earth Judge proclaimed. Then he took a brief meaningful look at the corner of the Hall, where the SRI reps were sitting and went on:
- I also have to recall, the judge said, that, according to the Code, in case we find out during the process a fact of false charges of operational failure of the product, which could lead to reputational damage to the manufacturer and the product itself, the party found guilty will indemnify the manufacturer. Additionally, it will be obliged to compensate the machine itself at its own expense to pay her next upgrade and possible service actions aimed at leveling compromising intelligence machine, the judge finished his disclaimer.
Looking over his glasses on EST reps, he also added: Just as in the case, if we find the machine was defective at delivery, all costs and expenses of the court will be borne by the manufacturer of the robot, consider this as part of guarantee obligations, he said with an authoritative voice. Having looked down the audience from his podium, experienced arbiter to his satisfaction realized that he reigned in the hall that he was now in full control of the magic process of the court battle for justice. The second part of the process begins! he confirmed his statement with a judge hammer knock.

Prosecutor took a word right away: - Your Honor, I ask to give a word to the space police officers, they have an important announce to say to the court on how the robot behaved during its detention on the planet.
- The attorney stepped ahead, jumped from his seat, saying: - Objection, Your Honor, I protest against the wording! Not detention, but rather an unscheduled delivery to the Earth, due to occurred circumstances of yet unknown nature.
- The request rejected, - the judge cut off coldly. - Go ahead, officers.
The space policemen reported, in a military way, briefly and clearly, putting on the shelves words and sentences: - Your Honor, we were tasked to advance to the third planet of alpha-Aquarius to contain and deliver the Earth there is an android. This task was fulfilled. Ready to answer questions, Your Honor!
- Well, officer, thank you for your loyal service. And here is my first question: what did you see, when arrived at Lutoya. Is there life on the exoplanet?
- No, Sir. The planet is lifeless.
Lawyer: - Objection! During the two hours that the space patrol remained on the planet, it is impossible to give an answer to this question!
Referee: - The protest is accepted. The officer, on the basis of what do you give such a definite answer?
- Your Honor, I saw only rocks, sand, some black waters on the horizon, most likely, hydrocarbon, and oxygen in the atmosphere is negligible. For a number of visible signs, I could make a conclusion of large day and night temperature extremes. I think during the night there is under minus one hundred Celsius. In the place where we landed, there was no even sign of moss, no trace of any other flora. I have enough experience of landing on exoplanets, although two hours - is nothing for such a planet, agreed.
- How fast could you find the robot?
- Right away, Sir. The tracking locators were in good shape, batteries were almost fully charged and operable for at least another ten years of an active mission on the planet. We flew on the descent vehicle, saw a robot that sat motionless on a small plateau at the top of the cliff and looked at the horizon, the rover stood still next to the robot.
Prosecutor: - Please inform the court that robot resisted detention... Describe its delivery to police jet.
Lawyer: - It has no relation to the subject matter!
Referee: - The officer, to answer the question of Mr. Prosecutor.
- Hard to say, Your Honor. The robot did not want to unscrew itself from the cliff.
- I do not understand you, in what sense?
- That day was a gale-force wind, strong movements of air masses on the planet, machine drilled itself into the rock and didnt want to follow the orders to get off and to release itself.
- The machine behaved inappropriately, what else is there to say. And besides, it put policemen at risk! - Loud enough to hear to the whole room the prosecutor called out.
- Policeman, continue.
- We had to tear off the robot from the cliff with the help of the winch we had at our lander. Meanwhile, the robot responded to all our communication channels, signaling that it was listening, except he didnt want to follow the command to immediately break away from the rocks and proceed to the patrol lander.
- Judge: QX-4, how do you explain their behavior on the rock during handling police?
- My behavior does not contradict to the embedded program. One of the tasks under the number 18 said: Climb to the top, dominate ground, engage and observe. I carried out the program.
- Officer, continue, what happened next?
- Having realized that the robot wont listen to us we cast a rope on it, tore the robot away from the rock and dragged it towards the loading hatch of the lander, literally skidded into the module. And just in time: some monstrous cloud raised in the horizon, impenetrable and dark, a sign of a devastating storm. So, we, according to instructions transferred the detainee and put it into the sleep mode, then set a course back to Earth. My report is completed summed up the space policeman.
- Did the robot resist when trawling, tilting or during other operations?
- No, sir. But we tore it away with difficulty, as the machine has strong drills in its fingers, some of them got broken during the detention and rescue operations.
- QX-4, remove your hand covers and show our state of the hand mechanism, - the judge ordered.
The robot obeyed and demonstrated its broken wrists to the court audience. Some manipulators were wrested from holes, phalanges wires sticking out driving elements, broken parts of hard-alloy drills. The hall swept light hum. The audience imagined this impressive scene: tearing away a stubborn super-robot from some rock at some far-away inhospitable planet, and even when hurricane winds in the atmosphere of methane. Yes, the space police have tough service, which takes a lot of courage to fulfill.
- I ask the court to protocol that the product was broken! a Space Robotics rep shouted.
- Your request is accepted, - the judge said, nodding his secretary, who conducted a multimedia transcript process.
Prosecutor once again drew the court's attention to the risk to the life of officers caused by the robot. - In such circumstances, every minute of your stay on the planet for officers represented a serious threat - insisted the accuser.
- Disgraceful! - Suddenly intervened representative of Space Robotics. The machine isnt a simple gadget, you know, to throw it back and forth. Probably it just didnt hear you. Its an expensive device, and very smart, smarter, maybe many of us here, - he threw a spark of anger in the direction of space policemen.
- No insults in this hall! - interrupted him the judge.
- Robot heard all our orders - returned the policeman. He responded to the first request has designed a unique identification code on the sunscreen.
- Your commands contradicted the semantic nucleus of its mission the SRI representative could keep calm.
The judge interrupted the dispute: - I have to remind that the main subject of this litigation is still the fact of disinformation of humans by the machine, namely, the fact that it reported life on Lutoya, while it is not there. Well, or, most likely, no, after all, isnt it, officer?
- Believe my experience, gentlemen. It may be that a planet is suitable for a terraforming and in the long term, but at the moment it is dead, absolutely. I am even more categorical in my confidence now, upon return to back to Earth, for I have had enough time to quietly think about what he saw on the way home.
- QX-Four, - the judge turned back to the robot. You in your first report on the question of whether there was life on the planet, gave a definite answer Yes, is not it?
- Yes, Your Honor, - as always calmly replied the thinking machine in a pleasant male voice.
The audience of the court raised noise.
- So who are we, the people, in the end, have to believe - a robot or a police officer? - Loudly said someone from the back gallery.
The judge looked hard and the hall fell silent. At this point, everyone in the room seemed that the machine was doomed, the decision had already been made, and it was quite likely it wasnt in favor of the Space Robotics and their product. And then the judge exhale wearily blurted out, I declare a break in the court session.
He needed a pause to talk to an independent expert, the inconspicuous elderly man with white hair and small professorial spectacles. All this time he sat quietly, hunched in a corner of the courtroom, carefully observing the robots behavior. This unremarkable man, in fact, was considered one of the world's best specialists in artificial intelligence, a real guru of world renown. They said it was he who created AI as we knew it in XXII century. But it is likely to have been a legend. Nevertheless, it was this guru, who helped eventually to solve the knot. The judge and the man with the white hair took coffee on the far away table, where one could see an airfield of the giant floating city, followed by a boundless ocean, through the stylish window, shaped in a form of a side-viewing ship window.
Guru sat in front, and sipping a bit of scalding coffee, went straight to the point:
- You know this is not just a machine with some kind of intelligence. We seem to be dealing with emotional intelligence. Have you noticed how he lowered its head when they put the robot in shame for what how he behaved at the planet? Did you see this perky in the electronic eyes? We're all looking for an error in a program, gaps in logic, a failure in the algorithm. There is no error. Its all about emotions. A wishful thinking, so to say. This is the case. I would say, its even too good thinking machine, with an excess of creativity, and it did some dirt to it. The robot built its microcosm, once arriving at this planet, probably it had a plan to disorient human bosses to save its microcosm. Or maybe even like this: the robot decided that it began to think, to feels, to experience new on the planet, which meant it is alive, and it doesnt matter for the machine, what kind of life it was, biological or artificial.
- Cogito Ergo Sum. I think therefore I am. And I am alive, not otherwise.
- Thus, when it was asked whether there was a life on Lutoya it answered directly and affirmative, - continued his idea the judge.
- Yes, and not about some stupid moss or germs, - professor laughed heartily.
- Well, well, dear professor. If your guess is correct, the robot may continue to respond in a certain way to certain trap-questions I am about to ask it right after the break. And if we are both right: it wont and it cant lie, then it wont escape my little tricks. However, it remains a mystery, why it still sent to Earth colorful stories, which looked too nice to be true? After all this is what it got the robot into trouble, where it finds itself now. Isnt it?
- That's what I do not yet fully understand, - frankly replied the guru. But I think it will crack, then well, the decision how to achieve this is to you, Your Honor, I did not want to influence it.
- Of course, besides its useless to try to influence me, - smiled the judge.
After the break, the judge addressed his first question to the robot:
- QX-Four, you reported that there was life on Lutoya, and now, at the moment, is the planet alive now?! - the judge sent his question, question of a human boss asking his slave robot right into its forehead.
- I do not know ... not sure - the robot replied, displaying that the question put him in difficulty of some origin.
Someone in the court room even slightly whistled in surprise. So much for! The robot seems to be on the move to change its testimony, what a dodger! Somehow this didnt correspond to its purpose to take care of issues facing mankind, not to create more grounds for hard searches and painful doubts.
- QX-Four - calmly and persistently continued the judge - I asked you a question about the resistance to the space police. You evaded a direct answer. Now youre trying to avoid one more answer. This is not the way robots behave. I ask one more question, answer clear and direct: do you think you are alive or rather an inanimate creation?
- Your honor, the question is incorrect, - interjected excitedly representative of the Space Robotics Inc. The machine is not authorized to make statements of this kind, it is a prerogative ...
- I am here decide, what to ask - the judge cut off quite sharply, - And whom.
- Yes, but the defendant is us, the company that made the machine, kept on the restless representative of the robot developers.
- Not anymore. The Court established in its judgment that the main defendant is now Mister QX-Four replied firmly the judge, calling to everyones surprise Mister a piece of electronics staying in front of him.
- QX-Four, do you understand that you are the defendant in this case from now on? The judge addressed the machine.
- Yes, of course, Judge, because I can think, I can certainly answer for myself, robot replied excitedly. I should, because I ... Then it fell silent.
- Because I live, - you want to say, right?
At this point some of the audience and panel members could not stand and broke into applause, one person even theatrically shouted Bravo!
- Well, that's part of the issue seems to be unraveled, - the judge said heaving a sigh of relief. - And now I want to see a report on communications between the STE and the robot? he ordered.
- Here it is, Your Honor. A company representative handed up at a thick folder of stamped documents. The judge carefully looked into the first sections of the report, those ones, which contain iridescent optimistic descriptions of grace nature of deserted and dead, as it turned out in the course of the investigation, exoplanet Lutoya. Silence reigned in the courtroom, intrigued by an unusual story.
- And here it is, - finally said with an undisguised satisfaction the judge. Colourful and confusing message from the mysterious planet. But somehow it was received much earlier scheduled time for the first analytical report. As I understand it, the machine had two months to study the atmosphere and the soil of the planet before it was to formulate any conclusions about Lutoya. Why, he cast a glance at the representative of the ETS, the company received reports in advance of the coded research period?
- That's right, Your Honor, - said the specialist, - two months later, the robot had to analyze the experience and transmit the data to Earth. But we could scan its brain and get information about its experiences on the planet earlier. In fact, from the time of landing and start of functioning on the planet. Just before the analytical part when the robot with artificial intelligence could start functioning when it was a usual research module.
- Yeah ... - thoughtfully and slowly said the judge, taking a meaningful look at the guru, quietly sitting in the corner. And the robot knew that its mission in terms of the transmission of information on the state of the planet actually began immediately after landing?
- And why, in fact, it should have known? Why, let me ask, you do not ask a vacuum cleaner if it knows that it was turned on already, dont you? the robot engineer said.
- If I understand you correctly, the information you got was still passing through the thinking apparatus of the robonaut?
- That's right, Your Honor. In fact, the machine had been designed in such a way that it does not matter, whether or not it recognizes that its brain is being used, for example we can scan data from all visual and other type of sensors. Just when a special trigger starts the analytical program, the robot starts an active process of analysis, to make its own conclusions.
- QX-Four, were you analyzing the planet Lutoya, what you saw there, during the first weeks of your stay there? Did you draw any conclusions about the planet have you implemented any record of preliminary findings?
- Mister Judge, Sir, I was in a completely autonomous navigation, measurements and calculations mode, I cant tell you if I was thinking at that moment. And the connection with Earth was so unstable, as my transmitter wasnt yet fully adapted to magnetic fields around the planet. So, I turned on the stand-alone regime, which implies the maximum use of all available memory and functional resources of my model.
- And why you rejected the police order to unscrew from the rock? It was an order of not just a man, but a human on duty, an officer with authority under certain circumstances to give orders even to people.
- Your Honor, my mission was no return. I hooked myself to a rock, enabled maximum energy saving mode and was observing the planet from a strategic dominant hill. I looked at my planet I realized that I was the first sentient being who has seen this world. I was the first to feel the beauty of these wonderful mountains, of the sky with two moons, this unforgettable sunset. I saw the power of it, the might of it I looked at mysterious giants, those volcanoes on the horizon. Even storms there are magnificent: this is the most beautiful planet
- Beautiful for robots, but not for living species! - Angrily shouted someone from the audience.
- Continue, - the judge ordered, knocking his hammer.
- I realized that I was meant for this world. That I belong to it and it belongs to me. I think I was excited. I imagined, how great could it be if we, people and robots this planet could make this planet our home. I thought about it all the time from the moment when, breaking through the clouds, my jet started to descend. And then, sitting on a rock, or before that, flying over its black lakes and seas, crossing the plains in a rover, I thought and thought about it. I must have dreamed.
- Here it is! Robots can dream?! - A judge turned to the Space Robotics guy.
- We call it to turn on a high creativity module, Your Honor. Probably, under certain critical circumstances, creative capabilities of machine can go beyond the scope of our technical outlook
- And this beyond average creative behavior of the machine we call a simple word dream, dont we? - concluded the judge. The ETS scanned and accepted as an unbiased report the dream of the first robot, which saw the planet. It appears so.
- It is quite likely to have happened, Your Honor. To tell the truth, now I am ready to believe it - with some embarrassment forced a representative of the robot developer.
-Well, I am ready to complete the picture and deliver a verdict - a bit tired, but still confident said the judge. But I would like to give the last word to the defendant. If you have something to say, say it right now, QX-Four.
- Your Honor, ladies and gentlemen - the robot began, referring to the people around him, listening attentively. I understand and accept that it was all my fault, that I went beyond the program, that I broke the rule, that misinformed my creators, humans, that I turned into a bad robot. I dont ask for mercy, just asking you to give me a chance and send me back to the planet. I want to be useful and ready to work there till my very last volt. Having sad this, the robot declined its head on the breast, just like a human before execution centuries ago.
The judge gave a word to the jury.
A middle-aged stodgy man who started his speech with a question represented the jury:
- Our verdict is that the QX-4 has fulfilled its mission. We, as a result, know more about the planet Lutoya. But we dont need a dreaming robot. What do we get from the fact that it can also dream? He lifted his hands in dismay and shrugged his shoulders, demonstrating with such an eloquent gesture, how much all humankind does not need dreaming robots. We also clearly see a defect in the machine, - he continued, - the manufacturers should also bear the responsibility, - he said. Our society needs fearless, dispassionate and reliable research robots! He proclaimed and took his seat back.
- I heard the jury and I am ready to announce my decision, the judge proclaimed. In the name of the Mankind, the Court verdicts and commits to taking out of production the QX-4 model of android, human-like robots with artificial intellect. It also orders to company-manufacturer to eliminate a defect, discovered during the hearings in this Court. The QX-4 machine is to be destroyed for contumacy, for not obeying humans, for ignoring orders of space police officers.
Its memory unit should be copied and placed into a new research vehicle, which will appear if and when necessity in such a machine comes to reality. All liabilities and expenses, of this process, are the responsibility of the Space Robotics corporation. The expenses occurred during police raid to and back from the exoplanet are to be covered by the STE company. It was found guilty in non-compliance of the Code of Laws on interaction between humans and AI machines, particularly of incorrect scanning of the robots artificial brain without previous signaling, as it is prescribed in instructions to the machine, issued by the manufacturing company.
Thats it! The case is closed! the judge put a period to the hearings with a knock of his hammer. Oh, yes, he said at the door, leaving the court room, you have a right to complain about my decision to a higher jurisdiction, the Solar System Court.
- Thank you, thank you for your mercy, mister judge! the robot exclaimed, thankfully dropping on its knees moment before marshals started the procedure of switching it off forever. My memory will be back there, and my life too!