On primary objective of human reason

In the 6th century B.C., the ancient Greek materialist philosopher Heraclitus of Ephesus formulated his vision of universe in the following way: the essence of universal process can be reduced to regular transformations of eternal matter [4]. The key words in this statement are process and regularity. Therefore, it was as early as at those distant times that progressive thinkers regarded the surrounding world not in a frozen state, but in a continuous motion, which is subject to specific laws. This brilliant conjecture brought the science to face its principal objective: to determine the vector of development of matter and to identify the laws behind this process.

Unfortunately, the era of free cities and free thinkers was overtaken by an era of the so called states, whose ruling clique is, in essence, nothing but an association of civilized bandits parasitic on populations of their own countries and permanently waging predatory wars with other nations. These parasites have been in no need of educated population, as they regard humans not as homo sapiens, but just as gun fodder only suitable for yet another carnage.  Up to the present, the voice of human reason has been muted by incessant saber-rattling, strangled morally, if not physically, by clerical obscurantism. Well-known is the fate of Italian Renaissance philosopher Giordano Bruno who dared to state loud and clear that the greatest objective of human reason is cognition of laws of nature, for which he was burnt at stake by inquisition [4]. The church has been thoroughly muting the fact that, throughout the Middle Ages, in all, the servants of God burnt on fires more than 13 million people, mostly scientists, that is, the best of the human race. As a result, it took science two thousand years to proceed to solving the problem formulated by Heraclitus!

The discovery of a phenomenon of transmutation of organic world made in the 18th century by the French naturalist and biologist J.-B. Lamarck [5] was the greatest breakthrough in understanding of nature. It enabled the biologists to begin a work aimed at determination of the vector of development of organic world and to use it as a basis for identification of the laws of this development.

In the second half of the 19th century, Ch. Darwin emphasized two fundamental features of development of organic world; first, the tendency to progress; and second, its intermittent (periodic) nature [3]. For a long time, science was unable to explain those features as it was challenged by the time factor. It turned out that progressive evolutionary transmutations, as distinct from adaptive variations emerging under the influence of environment, proceed extremely slowly. It was only possible to see this process in time, to identify its peculiarities on fossil materials, using such groups of ancient animals, whose destiny may be traced for millions of years. This only became possible with advent of a new science to be known as paleobiology. We have traced the process of progressive evolutionary transmutations on an example of ancient corals referred to the genus of Cyrtophyllum, which existed in the Upper Ordovician period from 448 to 438.5 mln years ago. As a result, it is established that evolutionary transmutations of these Coelenterata are based on progressive augmentation of their energetic potential owing to emergence of new, energetically more efficient, tissues [9, 11]. Besides, it is established that a rise of energetic potential observed in time with the corals in question was proceeding along with a process of differentiation of their tissues and functions, which is known to be an essential aspect of progressive evolution (Beklemishev V.N., 1964) [11]. It has also been found that the above process was not continuous; instead, it proceeded with certain time intervals: for the species Cyrtophyllum densum Zindstr;m, 1882 in ~1.8 million years, and for the species C. Lambeiformis Sokolov, 1950 in about 1.6 million years, and each time it only lasted for 150-200 thousand years [9, 11]. The fact of a regularly rhythmic pattern of evolutionary transmutations is of tremendous significance for understanding the process of development of organic world. In particular, it serves as evidence of the fact that an opinion of random mutations of genes as the root cause of evolution is a profound mistake [11]. Thus, the conclusion made by Charles Darwin on the progressive nature of evolutionary process of organic world and its periodicity has been proved on fossil materials.
Ideas of J.-B. Lamarck and Ch. Darwin caused fierce resistance on the part of servants of God and their scholar acolytes. Attacks on these ideas, all kinds of misrepresentations of their meaning continue up to the present. What is more, todays reactionaries wage their struggle against materialism on a scientific basis: the Papal Academy of Sciences (for which read anti-sciences) has been created in Vatican. This office is nothing less than a center for organization of anti-scientific sabotage and training of academic saboteurs.

In spite of all the attempts of reactionaries (be these in clerical frocks or in plain clothes) to arrest advancement of science, a considerable progress was made in the 20th century, among others, in learning the non-organic phase of matter. A great achievement was a discovery of pre-matter, which was long ago suggested to exist by D.I. Mendeleyev. In 1902, he published a paper named An essay on chemical understanding of universal ether, where ether was supposed to mean an element preceding hydrogen, for which the author introduced a zero group and a zero period in the original version of his Table. Unfortunately, D.I. Mendeleyev never brought the idea to its logical conclusion. Two decades after his death, a version of the table was published where no pre-matter was mentioned at all. Figuratively speaking, the atomic tree of the table was left rootless. It was not until the middle of the 20th century that Academician V.A. Ambartsumyan, in the course of research on stellar systems of a new type, came to a conclusion that the ordinary stellar and diffused state of matter is preceded by its super-dense state in the form of bodies of proto-matter made up of elemental particles: neutrons, protons, electrons, hyperons [1], i.e., of matter being at an earlier stage of development (compared to the atomic matter). It laid the foundation for formation of a new view in natural sciences, where matter (in our case, at the level of micro-world) should be considered in its development, not statically.

V.A. Ambartsumyans hypothesis on availability of pre-matter in space was soon confirmed due to discovery of neutron stars by the British astronomers J. Bell and A. Hewish in 1967 [7]. As a result of subsequent research of the micro-world, it was established as a fact that free neutron particles disintegrate spontaneously in the vacuum once in every 16 hours into protons, electrons and antineutrinos [2], i.e., the elements, on which the entire material world is based. This provides undisputable evidence of the fact that the neutron matter is the original state of matter; in other words, it constitutes pre-matter [10]. Therefore, this is the neutron matter, which is a starting point for consideration of matter in development.
The Papal Academy of Sciences immediately stood up against the conclusion putting forward its counter thesis, according to which emergence of neutron and other elemental particles is allegedly explained by a bang of the super-dense primeval atom. Thus they deny in a camouflaged form the matters ability for self-development, and we are presented once again with the same deceitful postulate on unchangeable matter.

The significance of discovery of pre-matter can hardly be overestimated. The volume of pre-matter in space reaches colossal dimensions. For example, the cross section of galactic super-nuclei, where the bulk of neutron matter is concentrated, measures hundreds of parsecs [6]. The matter, as such, i.e., a substance with strictly ordered ties between its constituent elementals [7], is mostly concentrated in planets. This is incomparable to the amount of neutron matter of galactic super-nuclei. Hence, it follows that this is exploration of this huge mysterious pre-universe, which must become the primary objective of human reason.

 

References
1. Ambartsumyan V.A. Transactions. Vol.2 Yerevan, Publ. House of the Arm. SSR Academy of Sciences, 1960.
2. Vlasov N.A. Neutrons. 2nd Ed. M.: Nauka, 1971, 551 pp.
3. Darwin Ch. 1937. On the Origin of Species. M.-L.
4. Concise Philosophical Dictionary. National Publishing House of Political Literature. Moscow, 1952.
5. Lamarck J.-B. 1935. Zoological Philosophy. 1. M.-L.
6. Origin and Evolution of Galaxies and Stars. M.: Nauka, 1976.
7. Soviet Encyclopedic Dictionary. Moscow, Soviet Encyclopedia, 1984.
8. Fomin Yu.M. On the Problem of Origin of Crystalline Carbon in the Process of Kimberlite Magmatism. www.proza.ru/2011/02/18/1133.
9. Fomin Yu.M. Cellular Energy Development: The Motor of Evolution of Organic World. www.proza.ru/2012/02/24/806.
10. Fomin Yu.M. Neutron Substance: The Basis of Universe. www.proza.ru/2012/05/16/987.
11. Fomin  Yu.M. On Ability of Living Nature for Self-Development. www.proza.ru/2013/08/22/1403.
12. Fomin Yu.M. On Dynamics of Progressive Evolution. www.proza.ru/2014/10/13/1222.