On the origin of atoms

In spite of all the achievements of theoretical nuclear physics in understanding the microworld, the problem of the origin of atoms remains unresolved. As a matter of fact, the ideas of Democritus, an ancient Greek materialist philosopher who thought of atoms as “pre-existing and invariable particles” [3] have not evolved much. By now, the astrophysical science has accumulated extensive factual evidence, which enables, to a high probability, to track down the process of formation of atomic structures and to make judgments regarding the sources of energy required for the same.
It is known that giant agglomerations of celestial bodies referred to as galaxies are not accidental [7]. The stars and the interstellar gas forming them are products of processes unfolding in the depths of super-nuclei that are located in the center of these agglomerations [4]. Super-nuclei constitute ultra-compressed clusters of neutronic matter, which is probably what makes proto-matter [1]. According to a number of astrophysicists, “super-powerful nonthermal radiation” emerges periodically from a super-nucleus. This is accompanied by formation of gigantic “jet” flows of gas-and-dust matter, which entrain from the “near” surroundings of the super-nucleus ultra-compressed neutronic bodies (the so-called “young” neutronic stars), carrying them to farther Space, where they continue their development [4]. This consists in the fact that particles of neutronic matter continuously separate from their surfaces, being released from the ultra-compressed state, which is accompanied with release of a huge amount of thermal energy. What is formed as a result is an ever-expanding fire ovoid referred to as a star. One of such stars is the Sun. Today, it is considered that in the central part of the Sun there is “a dense hot core” with a diameter of ~460,000 km, where nuclear reactions involving conversion of hydrogen into helium allegedly take place [5]. Thus, it is assumed that atoms of hydrogen have existed ab initio, and the matter is therefore deemed invariant. An idealistic nature of such concepts is beyond any doubt.

From the point of view of “primacy” of neutronic matter, we see the structure of this star in a different way. Probably, in the central part of the Sun there is an ultra-compressed neutronic body (Fig. 1-А), from the surface of which, while being released from its ultra-compressed state, neutronic particles continuously separate, which is accompanied with release of thermal energy, the amount of which may be estimated based on published data. Thus, it is known that on the surface of the photosphere, the temperature is 5,500;C, whereas by its foot (i.e., 300 km deeper) it increases to 9,000;С (Fig. 1-В). Therefore, the temperature difference within the 300 km interval makes 3,500;С. The distance from the foot of the photosphere to the top of the solar core (neutronic body) is ~460,000 km. Assuming that the temperature is rising linearly along with depth, by the solar core interface its value would reach 6,132,000 ;С (Fig. 1).

In their turn, the aforesaid particles, being in a free state, start releasing protons, electrons and antineutrinos [2]. Probably, neutronic particles are not only sources of protons, but also the force keeping them nearby, forming a very strong “neutron + proton” couple, which is actually what is called the “nucleus” of atom. It is supposed that the main forces acting between the neutronic matter and the protons in atomic nuclei are the so-called “nuclear forces” of non-electromagnetic nature, which exceed considerably the forces of Coulomb mutual repulsion of protons [2]. Though the nature of these forces is not established, the very fact of presence of a neutronic particle in all the nuclei of atoms, without exception, makes evidence that the source of nuclear forces is neutronic matter.

It should be noted that the ratio between the amounts of neutronic and protonic matter in nuclei of atoms has a regular pattern (Table 1).

The data presented in table 1 suggest that, from period No.1 to period No.7 the relative amount of the neutronic particle in the atom nucleus would increase, which ensures attachment of a larger number of protons thereto and, hence, an increase in the positive charge of the nucleus. Accordingly, it becomes possible for an increasingly large number of electrons to be attached to the nucleus.

Emergence of a nuclear structure is the first step in the process of atom formation. This process continues in the upper horizon of the star, within the so-called photosphere, where atomic nuclei are brought with convective flows. The photosphere is 300-400 km thick. The temperature on its surface is about 5 thousand degrees, and at its foot – up to 9 thousand degrees (Fig. 1-В), that is considerably lower than in deep in the star interior. Probably, it is only at such temperatures that electrons can be attached to nuclei. Here, 2/3 of all the chemical elements of the periodic table have been discovered through spectral analysis [5]. Attachment of electrons to nuclei is the second and final step in the process of atom formation.

Similar processes of atom formation obviously took place in “microstellar ovoids”, which, as a result of cooling down, turned into the so-called planets [6].

Therefore, atom-formation is a lengthy process unfolding in stars in a staged way at different PT conditions. The central neutronic nucleus (Fig. 1-A) is probably surrounded with a zone of extreme release of thermal energy (Fig. 1-A-1), which gradually merges into the plasma sheath, where atomic nuclei are formed at a temperature of millions degrees (Fig. 1-B). The plasma sheath passes into the so-called convective zone (Fig. 1-B-1). In the outer shell of the Sun – the so-called photosphere (Fig. 1-C), the temperature is reduced to thousands of degrees. In these circumstances, atomic nuclei brought here with convective flows become able to attach electrons to themselves, thus turning into full-fledged atomic structures.


1. Амбарцумян В.А. Научные труды. Т.2. Ереван, Изд-во АН Арм. ССР, 1960. / Ambarstumyan V.A. Scientific works. Vol.2. Yerevan, Publ. House of the Academy of Sciences of the Armenian SSR, 1960.
2. Власов Н.А. Нейтроны. 2-е изд. М.: Наука, 1971 / Vlasov N.A. Neutrons. 2nd Ed., M.; Nauka, 1971.
3. Краткий философский словарь. Гос. изд-во политической литературы. Москва, 1952 / Concise philosophic dictionary. State Publishing House of Political Literature. Moscow, 1952.
4. Происхождение и эволюция галактик и звёзд. М.: Наука, 1976 / Origin and evolution of galaxies and stars. M. Nauka, 1976.
5. Советский энциклопедический словарь. Изд-е 3, Москва «Советская энциклопедия», 1984 / Soviet Encyclopedic Dictionary. 3rd Ed., Moscow “Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya”, 1984
6. Фомин Ю.М. К проблеме доядерной материи. / Fomin Yu.M. On the problem of pre-nuclear matter. http://www.proza.ru/2011/02/24/1795.
7. Фомин Ю.М. О происхождении галактик и материи. / Fomin Yu.M. On the origin of galaxies and matter. http://www.proza.ru/2015/02/12/1582.