On the origin of cosmic rays

According to a generally accepted definition, cosmic rays are a "stream of charged stable high-energy particles that come to Earth from universal space ..." [5]. Obviously, for such "stream" to emerge, it is necessary that there would exist its real sources in the "universal space". Suggestions are put forward that "nuclei of active galaxies", or "explosions of supernovae", as well as the Sun,  could be such sources [5].

As of today, as a result of exploration of cosmic objects and, primarily, the Sun, the astrophysical science has accumulated a vast amount of factual material, which enables to make confident judgments on the processes taking place deep inside the stars, as a result of which these become the sources of a stream of charged particles. One of the most important achievements of astrophysics is establishing the nature of the matter, of which stars are formed. As early as in the middle of the 20th century, Academician V.A. Ambartsumyan put forward an idea that " the central part of the galaxies accommodate supermassive clusters of ultra-compressed neutron matter, from where its powerful emissions periodically occur" [1]. At the same time, as further studies showed, there occurs "ultrapowerful non-thermal radiation with formation of "jet" streams of gas dust matter comprising fragments of various sizes of the neutron matter" [4]. These are the fragments, from which stars apparently develop, which is confirmed by data on research of neutron stars. Thus, atomic nuclei and electrons have been established to be present on their surface [5], indicating that there occurs an active "release" of neutron particles from the "captivity" of the ultra-dense state, followed by their decomposition into protons and electrons. Undoubtedly, this "release" must be accompanied by release of a huge amount of thermal energy, leading to formation of fire ovoids, that is, emergence of stars. Therefore, at the center of each star, there appears to be a source of thermal energy in the form of an ultra-compressed body (nucleus) of neutron composition. The study of the Sun showed that around its core (D = 464,000 km), a plasma envelope with a thickness of about 260,000 km has been formed, at the base of which the temperature reaches more than 6 million degrees [7] (Fig. 1-B). We suggest referring to the same as the "inner plasma shell" (IPS). Perhaps, it is here that the free neutron particles break up into protons and electrons. This is the place, where an essential natural process is going on: formation of nuclei of future atoms - the first structured elements of matter [6].

Located above the IPS is the so-called convective zone with a thickness of about 200,000 km (Figure 1-B-1), in which the plasma matter is continuously circulating. Moving towards the surface of the Sun, the plasma reaches the Sun’s uppermost horizon known as the photosphere, whose thickness amounts to 300-400 km. Over the time of this very long transportation, its temperature gradually decreases, and at the level of the top of the photosphere it is just about 6,000 ° C, that is, a thousand times lower [7] (Fig. 1-B). It is probably due to this decrease in temperature that it becomes possible for electrons to attach to atomic nuclei, that is, for full-fledged atomic structures to form this way [7]. Spectral analysis reveals the presence of 2/3 of all the atoms of the periodic table of chemical elements in the photosphere [5].

During the periods of increased solar activity, an excess of the plasma matter is likely to form in the "inner plasma shell", which apparently passes through the convective zone at an accelerated rate and is then ejected beyond the limits of the photosphere. During this "accelerated" transportation, the plasma has time to cool down only a few times, that is, to a temperature of 1-2 million degrees. At a distance of about 10,000 km from the surface of the photosphere, this ejected plasma forms a luminous cluster of a peculiar shape known as "corona", which, as we believe, would be more appropriately referred to as the Sun’s outer plasma shell (OPS) (Fig. 1-E).

The main constituent elements of the OPS are protons (up to 92%) and electrons (~ 7%). It also contains small amounts of some chemical elements. The OPS is observed in space in the form of "tongues" at a distance of up to 10 solar radii [5]. During the periods of increased solar activity, the masses of charged particles from the OPS rush into the expanses of Space, including towards the Earth, at a speed of 300 to 1500 km/sec. Having reached the Earth's magnetic field, they cause a variety of phenomena, one of which is widely known as "aurora borealis".

1. The inner plasma shell (IPS) (Fig. 1-B) is the zone where charged particles are formed, and also their main receptacle.
2. The intermediate zone of accumulation of charged particles is the Sun’s outer plasma shell (OPS) also known as the "solar corona" (Fig. 1-E). It is from here that the streams of charged particles rush into outer space in periods of increased solar activity.
3. The streams of charged particles do not only come to the Earth from the side of the Sun, but also from all the sides of outer space, that is, from a variety of sources similar to the Sun. These are, apparently, the stars of our galaxy, which certainly develop according to the same laws as those affecting the Sun. This is confirmed by data on the same composition of all cosmic rays, as well as a phenomenon similar to "solar wind", which was discovered in some types of other stars, that came to be known as "star wind" [5].
4. The absolute prevalence of protons in cosmic rays originating from stars makes evidence of the positive charge of these objects.

1. Ambartsumyan V.A. Scientific Works, Vol. 2, Yerevan, Publishing House of the Armenian SSR Academy of Sciences, 1960
2. Bethe H. Theory of Nuclear Matter. Transl. from English., “Mir” Publishing House, Moscow, 1974.
3. Vlasov N.A. Neutrons. 2nd Ed. M.: Nauka, 1971, 551 pp.
4. Origin and Evolution of Galaxies and Stars. A.G. Doroshkevich, Yu.N. Efremov, A.V. Zasov, Ya.V. Zeldovich. Edited by S.P. Pikelner. Moscow: Nauka, 1976.
5. Soviet Encyclopedic Dictionary. 3rd Ed., Moscow "Soviet Encyclopedia", 1984.
6. Fomin Yu.M. Neutron Matter: the Basis of the Universe.    www.proza.ru/2012/05/16/987
7. Fomin Yu.M. On the origin of atoms. www.proza.ru/2017/02/10/870