Origin and development of matter. Hypothesis

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Introduction
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In the 6th century B.C., the ancient Greek materialist philosopher Heraclitus of Ephesus formulated his vision of universe in the following way: the essence of universal process can be reduced to regular transformations of eternal matter [8]. The key words in this statement are process and regularity. Therefore, it was as early as at those distant times that progressive thinkers regarded the surrounding world not in a frozen state, but in a continuous motion, which is subject to specific laws.

This brilliant conjecture brought the science to face its principal objective: to determine the vector of development of matter and to identify the laws behind this process. Yet, because of the religious obscurantists, it took science two thousand years (!) to proceed to solving the problem formulated by Heraclitus. The discovery of a phenomenon of transmutation of organic world made in the 18th century by the French naturalist and biologist J.-B. Lamarck [9] was the greatest breakthrough in understanding of nature. It enabled the biologists to begin a work aimed at solving the problem stated by Heraclitus.

In the second half of the 19th century, Ch. Darwin emphasized two fundamental features of development of organic world; first, the tendency to progress; and second, its intermittent (periodic) nature [6]. For a long time, science was unable to explain those features as it was challenged by the time factor. It turned out that progressive evolutionary transmutations, as distinct from adaptive variations emerging under the influence of environment, proceed extremely slowly. It was only possible to see this process in time, to identify its peculiarities on fossil materials, using such groups of ancient animals, whose destiny may be traced for millions of years. This only became possible with advent of a new science to be known as paleobiology.

A considerable progress was made in the 20th century, among others, in learning the non-organic phase of matter. A great achievement was a discovery of pre-matter, which was long ago suggested to exist by D.I. Mendeleyev. In 1902, he published a paper named An essay on chemical understanding of universal ether, where ether was supposed to mean an element preceding hydrogen, for which the author introduced a zero group and a zero period in the original version of his Table. Unfortunately, D.I. Mendeleyev never brought the idea to its logical conclusion. Two decades after his death, a version of the table was published where no pre-matter was mentioned at all. Figuratively speaking, the atomic tree of the table was left rootless. It was not until the middle of the 20th century that Academician V.A.

Ambartsumyan, in the course of research on stellar systems of a new type, came to a conclusion that the ordinary stellar and diffused state of matter is preceded by its super-dense state in the form of bodies of proto-matter made up of elemental particles: neutrons, protons, electrons, hyperons [1], i.e., of matter being at an earlier stage of development (compared to the atomic matter). It laid the foundation for formation of a new view in natural sciences, where matter (in our case, at the level of micro-world) should be considered in its development, not statically.

The significance of discovery of pre-matter can hardly be overestimated. The volume of pre-matter in space reaches colossal dimensions. For example, the cross section of galactic super-nuclei, where the bulk of neutron substance is concentrated, measures hundreds of parsecs [11]. Hence, it follows that this is exploration of this huge mysterious pre-universe, and, first and foremost, revealing its role in emergence of matter, which must become one of the main objectives facing science.

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Neutronic matter and its properties
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Since the 1930s, due to the emergence of nuclear physics, a large number of previously unknown elementary particles, the properties of which do not fit into the system of traditional representations of matter, have been discovered. Among them, a special place is held by a "neutral" elementary particle that came to be known as "a neutron". Its existence was predicted by E. Rutherford in 1921, but it was only discovered in 1932 by J. Chadwick who showed that this particle has a mass approximately equal to the mass of a proton (mp=1,672252*10-24, mn=1,674482*10-24)[2].

To date, the origin of the neutron is referred to as secondary. Thus, L.D. Landau and R. Oppenheimer, trying to explain the nature of neutron stars, came to the conclusion that neutrons are formed on gigantic compression of atoms (~2*1014 g/cm3) under the conditions of gravitational collapse of stars. It is assumed that under these conditions electrons are pressed (?) into protons thus turning protons into neutrons (?). However, the origin of protons and electrons is not explained.

According to N.A. Vlasov, the evolution of stars goes in the direction of neutronization, that is, the transformation of protons into neutrons in the process of thermonuclear reactions. [5]

H. Bethe argues in his work Theory of Nuclear Matter that neutron substance is a state that is implemented in super-dense stars [3]. V.A. Atsyukovskiy provides a gas-mechanical interpretation of the origin of elementary particles on the basis of ideas about ether as a real viscous and compressible gas. At the same time, neutron is considered by him as a derivative of proton [2].

In the so-called Theory of Bang Expansion of the Universe created in the Pontifical Academy of Sciences in Vatican, emergence of neutrons and other elemental particles is explained by a bang of a super-dense primeval atom.
All the above views are based on categorical rejection of one of the main provisions of the philosophy on the ability of matter to self-develop [14]. Thus, the progressive idea of self-development of matter is actually replaced with an idealistic postulate about its being immutable, capable only of mechanical movement in space. As a result, according to N.A.Vlasov, the fundamental question, namely what constitutes the original substance of our Universe, and how it was formed, is not answered by the existing physical theories [5]. At the same time,  H. Bethe in his work Theory of Nuclear Matter points to a peculiarity of the neutron, which, in our opinion, sheds light on the origin of matter. This peculiarity consists in the fact that, being in a free state, neutron particles, once in every 16 hours, emit a positively charged particle (a proton) and a negatively charged particle (an electron). It is known that the neutron together with the proton participate in the synthesis of all atomic nuclei, that is, in the creation of matter in its most original form the so-called nuclear matter [3]. Thus, the neutron, producing these elementary particles, is the ancestor and, at the same time, an integral part of this nuclear matter.

The amount of neutron substance in outer space and its role in formation of such space objects as the Earth are evidenced by the data on its composition. It is estimated that 50% of the mass of the entire substance of the Earth is contained in neutrons. But if we keep in mind that both protons and electrons are derived from the same neutron substance, it remains to recognize that the entire mass of our planet owes its origin to this substance. These data directly indicate that there is a different (pre-nuclear) type of substance in nature, which is the source of neutrons.

The true nature of this substance could be understood owing to a discovery made in 1967 by the English astronomers J. Bell and A. Hewish of the so-called pulsars, which, according to modern concepts, are identified with rapidly rotating neutron stars. It is believed that they are ultra-compressed (p=1.2*1414 g/cm3) objects with a diameter of 10-30 km and consist mainly of neutron substance [14]. It is assumed that it is with such a density that the neutron substance can exist [5]. The discovery of common atomic nuclei and electrons on the surface of the neutron bodies suggests that, at their periphery, the density decreases, which launches the separation of neutron particles with subsequent release of protons and electrons therefrom.
Most of these objects are found within our galaxy [12], which indicates that their "source" is within the same. Apparently, this source is a giant size ultra-compressed clot of neutron substance located in the centre of the galaxy, being its nucleus. Its huge size makes possible to refer this core to the class of super-nuclei. Such super-nuclei are also set up in other galaxies. An extremely important feature of their existence is "periodic super-powerful non-thermal radiation" [11]. This produces powerful jet flows of gas-and-dust substances. The latter take with them fragments of neutron substance from the depths of the super-nucleus, from which fire ovoids are formed the so-called stars". By analogy with the processes taking place in the super-nuclei of galaxies, processes may also unfold in the nuclei of stars similar to non-thermal radiation from super-nuclei. If this is the case, then it is the non-thermal radiation from the depths of the solar core that pre-determined the emergence of the Sun's satellites, that is, small stars, which, having cooled down, turn into planets, in particular, planets of the Earth group [14, 19].

The study of photographic images of galaxies showed that these giant structures consisting of hundreds of billions of stars still have finite dimensions and a certain shape, despite the lack of a clear outer border. It is known that the process of formation of galaxies, which is centrifugal by nature, involves huge forces dispersing jet flows with their content from the galaxy super-nucleus to deep space [11]. In our opinion, this can only be explained by the fact that, in opposition to the repulsion forces, most powerful forces of attraction act, the source of which, apparently, is a neutron substance, which makes the galactic super-nucleus. Probably the neutron core of the Sun, as well as that of other stars, also has the power to hold the planets nearby. Perhaps this is the aforesaid property of proto-matter that explains the phenomenon of universal gravitation.

At the level of the microcosm, the force that enables to keep the protons nearby is apparently particles of the neutron substance. As a result of this interaction, the initial forms of matter, atomic nuclei, emerge. It is known that the main forces acting in atomic nuclei between neutron particles and protons are nuclear forces of non-electromagnetic nature, which significantly exceed the Coulomb forces of repulsion of protons [5]. The nature of these forces has not yet been clarified. However, the presence of neutron substance particles in all atomic nuclei without exception indicates that the source of nuclear forces is the neutron substance.

Conclusions

1. The neutron substance is the source of nuclear matter formation .
2. The neutron substance has unique properties, namely, periodic nonthermal energy radiation and attractive force.

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Origin of stars and matter
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The conversion of neutron matter begins in fire ovoids referred to as stars. One of them is the Sun. Currently, it is believed that its central part accommodates a dense (?) hot core with a diameter of about 460,000 km, in which nuclear reactions involving conversion of hydrogen into helium are allegedly unfolding [12].

Thus, it is assumed that hydrogen atoms existed initially and, therefore, the matter is recognized as unchangeable. The idealistic nature of such speculations is beyond doubt.

From the standpoint of the primacy of the neutron substance, the structure of the central part of the Sun appears to be different. Probably, the central part of the Sun contains an ultra-compressed neutron body with a diameter of about 460,000 km, which is a source of thermal energy [20] (Fig. 1-A). Neutron particles are being continuously separated from its surface, thus being released from the captivity of their ultra-compressed state. At the same time, thermal energy is being released, the value of which can be judged on the basis of available published data. So, it is known that on the surface of the outer shell of the Sun, the so-called photosphere, the temperature is 5500 ;, while to its base, that is, ~300 km inwards, it increases to 9000 ; (Fig. 1-C). Thus, the temperature difference within the range of ~ 300 km is ~3500 ;. It is known that the distance from the base of the photosphere to the roof of the solar core is 460,000 km (Fig. 1). Providing there is a uniform temperature increase with depth, its value on the boundary of the core must reach 6,132,000 ; (Fig. 1). The study of the Sun has shown that a ~260,000 km thick plasma shell is formed around the core, at the base of which the temperature reaches the specified value. Apparently, it is here that free neutron particles begin to release protons and electrons. It is likely that neutron particles are not only the source of such elementary particles as protons and electrons, but also the force that holds them nearby, which led to the implementation of the most important natural process - the emergence of the strongest natural bond: neutron + proton, that is, all (except for protium) of future atomic nuclei. The emergence of a nuclear structure means the birth of a new natural formation, which should be called matter. Its fundamental difference from unstructured proto-matter is that there are stable bonds between its constituent elements [12].

The matter develops further in the outer shell of the Sun, the photosphere, where atomic nuclei are carried out with convective flows through the overlying convective zone (Fig. 1-C). Probably, it is only under the conditions existing in the photosphere, that is, at temperatures equal to thousands of degrees, atomic nuclei can be joined by electrons. It is here that a new, more complex, but less durable structure of matter, called an atom, appears. In the photosphere, spectral analysis revealed 2/3 of chemical elements of the periodic table [12], as well as some of their most elementary compounds.

Conclusions

Stars are space objects, where initial structures of matter are formed from the neutron proto-matter: atomic nuclei in the plasma shell, and atoms in the photosphere.

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Development of matter in planets.
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Opportunities for further development of the matter only arose within planets. On planet Earth, the development of the inorganic form of matter occurs in the geosphere located under the crust, in the so-called upper asthenosphere. Deformed atoms brought here by convective flows [13] from the depths of the mantle (Kapustinskiy A.F., 1956) restore their outer electron shell, thus acquiring the ability to interact with each other according to the laws of chemistry. As a result, there emerges a new kind of inorganic form of matter in the form of a variety of substances. It should be noted that the temperature in this geosphere does not exceed 1500 ;C. Probably, this is the temperature that is the most suitable condition for the formation of substances. Having erupted to the surface in the form of magma and solidified, these substances form a rigid shell of the planet from a variety of rocks. In our opinion, these primary rocks, hydrosphere and atmosphere are the final products of the evolution of the inorganic form of matter.

After the formation of the hydrosphere, about 4 billion years ago, conditions arose on planet Earth for the emergence of such natural phenomenon as the organic form of matter. Its emergence and development was due to the action of heat flows, the so-called superplumes (Letnikov, F.A., 2002) [14], which brought unlimited quantities of H, O, C, and N from the mantle depths to the aqueous environment of the pre-ocean, the above elements known as the main building material for organics. It was found that carbonaceous gases may be used as source materials for the synthesis of various organic compounds, such as hydrocarbons, amino acids, up to the formation of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). RNA molecules are known to be capable of self-reproduction and participate in the transmission of genetic information, that is, they are in fact the first living objects [4].

What was extremely important for the development of the organic form of matter was its cellular structure. The revolutionary significance of this natural invention lies in the fact that this structure turned out to be a microgenerator of energy, that is, capable of extracting the necessary resources from the environment to produce energy within itself. This contributes to existence of cellular structures largely independent of the environment.

The next stage in the development of the organic form of matter was the unification of homogeneous cells and, most importantly, their energy cooperation. This led to a significant increase in the energy potential of cellular associations compared to the energy of standalone cells. What possessed a probably even greater energy potential were associations of specialized cells that form specialized tissues thus becoming more successful in performing their respective functions. Finally, the combination of specialized tissues led to the creation of highly complex organisms with the highest energy potential. Throughout this process, a special role is played by the phenomenon known as the leader effect, where the values inherent in the most active cells and tissues (rather than the average arithmetic values) are maintained between the energy parameters of active and inactive cells, and then, probably, tissues, as well [10].

Probably, this process leading to reduction of dependence on environment is the vector of development of the organic form of matter.

Thus, the point put forward by C. Darwin on the progressive nature of the evolution of the organic world receives a real materialistic explanation: the driving force of the progress of the organic world is a regular increase in the energy potential of cellular associations in time. In addition, we have established on paleontological material a regular feature of this process pointed to by C. Darwin, namely, its periodic (spasmodic) nature [18].

In recent decades, it has been established that planet Earth is not the only space object where matter has evolved to its organic form. According to G.P. Vdovykin [4], in stone meteorites carbonaceous chondrites enriched with carbon, the bulk of carbon is constituted with a high-molecular (polymeric) organic substance of a condensed aromatic structure, which contains free organic radicals. In its structure, it is similar to the Earth's kerogen substance of sedimentary rocks originally formed from biogenic material.

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Conclusion
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The discovery of proto-matter has enabled to consider the space around us not in statics, but in development. In particular, it allowed to solve the problem of the origin of matter: the source of formation of the most elementary structures of matter (atomic nuclei) is proto-matter. It occurs in the plasma shell of stars at temperatures up to several million degrees. A higher level of development of matter in stars is achieved at a much lower temperature. E.g., on the outer shell of the Sun, in the photosphere, the temperature on its surface is 5500 ;C. Probably, this temperature is a condition, under which electrons can be attached to atomic nuclei. The spectral analysis revealed 2/3 of chemical elements of the periodic table there.

The matter is only further developing in conditions of planets. On planet Earth, the development of its inorganic form is implemented in the upper asthenosphere at a temperature no higher than 1500 ;C. Here, in the course of interaction of atoms, a variety of substances are formed, from which rigid and gaseous shells originated on the planets of the Earth group, and on the Earth, as such; besides, a shell to be known as hydrosphere was formed from a liquid-state matter. It is the appearance of the hydrosphere that has led to the conception of a new form of the matter in space, namely, its organic form. The evolution of this form of matter followed the path of a progressive increase in the energy potential of cellular associations, which is likely to continue still further.

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References
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