Napoleon III and Asia. The essay

Napoleon III and Asia. The essay

In the work by Eugene Tarle “Napoleon III and Europe. From the Paris world to the start of the Bismarck ministry in Prussia (1856 - 1862)", there are brief characteristics of Napoleon III’s actions in Asia.

1. “The war in Indo-China (1858 - 1862). From 1860, a series of colonial wars of France began. (...) Since 1858, and especially since 1860, the French war has been waged in Indo-China. In 1862, this war, after stubborn resistance by the natives, ends with the conquest of Cochinchina. (...) Soon after the conquest of Cochinchina, the French forced the king of the vast and wealthy neighboring Cambodia to formally recognize the protectorate of France over this country  ... ”

2. “Napoleon III's unsuccessful attempt to establish himself in Syria. (...) Napoleon III was not at all planning to fight England over Syria, and in June 1861 the French troops were withdrawn from there. This time, an attempt to capture Syria failed. ”

3. “The Anglo-French expedition to China (1860). In 1860, the British and French governments were engaged in a joint expedition to China. (...) The Russians on Amur were not taken into account in the plans. Consequently, the British and French diplomats could only agree among themselves about the amicable demarcation of China. As early as 1858, on the same day, June 26, China was forced to sign the two predatory trade and political treaties in Tianjin, imposed on him by France and England. After the signing of these treaties, the Chinese made a desperate attempt to defend themselves against rapists with an armed uprising. This led to the most severe punitive expedition of the French and British to China in 1860. "

The countries and regions of Asia, which were discussed in the historical work by Eugene Tarle, have a centuries-old and detailed history.

In a brief outline, only some brief comments can be made.

1. Indochina.

Indochina is a peninsula in southeast Asia. The states of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia (most part of Malaysia), Myanmar, Thailand, and also a small part of Bangladesh are located on the Indochina peninsula.

The colonial possessions of France on the Indochina peninsula since 1887 were called the Indochinese Union.

After World War II, the independent states of VIETNAM, CAMBODIA and LAOS were formed on the territory of the French Indochina.

After 1954, French troops left Indochina.

2. Syria.

On 29 September 1923 France was assigned the League of Nations mandate of Syria. In 1926, the mandated territory was divided into Lebanon and Syria.

On September 27, 1941, France granted Syria independence, leaving troops on territory of Syria until the end of World War II. In April 1946, French troops were evacuated from Syria.

3. The China.

“Seeing the military preparations of England, the French emperor Napoleon III wished to injoin his forces into the said expedition, seeking to revise the trade agreement concluded at Whampoa and strengthen the influence of France in Chinese waters. To this end, in May 1857, Baron Gros was sent as ambassador extraordinary to negotiate with the Chinese government, with the right to resort to force of arms if necessary.

Russia and the United States also sent their representatives to China, forbidding them, however, from participating in any kind of violent action against the Beijing government. (...)

The Chinese government realized that any further resistance became meaningless ...

May 30 [1858] ... negotiations began. Following the English and French delegates, Count Putyatin and the American envoy Reed also arrived in Tianjin. (...) Chinese diplomats were very compliant on all issues ...

The Russian envoy and the representative of the United States signed their trade and friendly treaties before the Allies ...

... The peace treaty was signed on June 27, 1858 in Tianjin, and on July 4 approved by the Chinese emperor. ". (Butakov A. M., Tizengauzen A. E. Opium Wars. Review of the wars of Europeans against China in 1840-1842, 1856-1858, 1859 and 1860. - M .: AST, 2002 [First edition: Review of wars waged by Europeans against China from 1840-42, 1856-58, 1859 and 1860. The General Staff officers  Colonel Butakov and Captain Baron Tiesenhausen. According to French, German and English sources. St. Petersburg, Military Scientific Committee of the General Staff, 1884])

The Russo-Chinese Treaty of Tianjin of 1858 provided for the determination of a part of the border between Russia and China that had not been established until then.

The border was defined and secured by the Beijing Treaty of 1860 [Convention of Peking] (during the Second Opium War between Great Britain and France, on the one hand, and the Qing Empire, on the other hand).

On October 24–25, 1860 (following the results of the Second Opium War between Great Britain and France, on the one hand, and the Qing Empire, on the other hand), the Beijing Treaty was signed, according to which the Qing government agreed to pay the UK and France 8 million taels indemnities and to open the Tianjin for Foreign Trade ...

On November 14, 1860, the Qing Empire signed the Convention of Peking [the Convention of Beijing] on border along the Amur River and the Ussuri River with Russia.

Border is a separate big topic. The work by Yu. M. Galenovich “Russia and China in the 20th century: the border” (2001) [in Russian] is (for example) about this issue.

As Eugene Tarle wrote in the work "Napoleon III and Europe", “As for Napoleon III, then in 1860-1862 he pursued a policy that could bring him closer to Alexander II. This policy was decisively hostile to all attempts by the Sardinian government, which had already officially turned into the government of the “kingdom of Italy” in 1861, to complete the unification of Italy” (“to create next to France, the new large power, - such an action  now seemed to Napoleon III redundant, and in the future - dangerous ").

In 1862, Otto von Bismarck became Minister President of Prussia. A situation was gradually moving towards 1870-1871 and to the loss of imperial power by Napoleon III ...

October 9, 2019 17:01

Translation from Russian into English: October 10, 2019  05:13.
Владимир Владимирович Залесский “Наполеон III и Азия. Очерк”.